FIP is caused by a virus. A virus is the sort of organism that gives us the common cold. The virus that causes FIP is a coronavirus – feline enteric coronavirus (FeCV).
In infected cats the virus is found in:
FIP is spread from cat to cat but requires prolonged exposure to become infected.
30-40% of all cats have been exposed to it and have antibodies in their blood. Antibodies are produced in response to the presence of the virus. 80-90% of cats in catteries have antibodies to FeCV. It is widespread, therefore. It is a problem for catteries². It is hard to get rid of it in an infected cattery. In fact FIP is a danger in any multicat environment.
However, 99% of cats do not develop the secondary fatal disease that we call FIP. 75% of exposed cats have no symptoms and some have mild symptoms such as a runny nose and eye discharge.
Less than one percent of infected cats develop the FIP.
Age of Cats
Most cats are 6 months to 5 years old¹ (2 years²) when they develop the disease. Also older cats are ‘often infected’¹.
These may occur from weeks to years after exposure. They usually show after 2-3 weeks. There are 2 forms: wet and dry FIP.
In wet, fluid builds in the chest or abdomen. This is due to damage to very small blood vessels causing them to leak fluid into body spaces and tissues. This makes breathing difficult if there is fluid in the chest cavity. You might see a bloated abdomen if the fluid is in the abdomen. The fluid is clear and light yellow in color (egg white consistency¹). Other signs are:
In dry, there are abnormalities in the cells (lesions) of a granular pus filled nature. This form of FIP is ‘disseminated’² – spread out and dispersed. The early signs are as for the wet type. Eyes can be affected. 60% of cases show brain and eye problems.
FIP can cause renal failure, liver disease and nervous system defects.
“He will die”². “A very small percentage of cats survive FIP”¹ Excellent nursing skills are required.
As at 2008 there is a vaccine that is not part of the routine schedule and at that time its effectiveness was not established.
- Medical, Genetic & Behavioral Aspects of Purebred Cats edited by Ross Clark DVM ISBN 0-9634124-0-X
- Cat Owner’s Home Veterinary Handbook 3rd edition by Eldredge, Carlson, Carlson (DVMs) and Giffin MD. ISBN 978-0-470-09530-0
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