Please note the word “domestic” in the question in the title. Google, at present, ignores the word “domestic” and dutifully finds information about the bite of the jaguar which is one of the big cats and a wild cat species with the strongest bite of all cats. So in an absolute sense the jaguar has the hardest bite but this is not a domestic cat as everybody knows. People are searching for the domestic cat with the strongest bite and if we confine the search to domestic cats there is no specific information on the subject as researched by scientists and reported in a study. There wouldn’t be as the information is unhelpful.
Therefore we have to select the biggest individual domestic cat as the one likely to have the strongest bite. That individual is likely to come from one of the members of the Maine Coon breed because some of these domestic cats can be up to 30 pounds or more judging by their size. However, we won’t know the individual cat involved. All we can say is that the domestic cat with the strongest bite is theoretically going to be a fiesty, unsocialised Maine Coon (none exist!) and he will be one of the largest that you will see. There are some enormous Maine Coons one of which is on this page.
There’s nothing more to say on the subject in my opinion except to ask why the question has been asked. It’s a rather strange question because there can be only two reasons why. The first reason is that a potential adopter is frightened of being bitten and therefore they want to know the bite strength of the various breeds of cat. The second reason would be that they want their domestic cat to act as some sort of guard dog which won’t happen. Both reasons are fairly tenuous if not pointless.
As for being bitten by a domestic cat, bite strength is pretty well irrelevant because all domestic cats can bite right through to the bone if they really want to and inject mouth bacteria under the skin (human bites are more serious than cat bites). Although almost all cat bites will be no more than irritating, some will cause an infection which will need to be treated quickly with a suitable antibiotic. Delay is not an option.
The cat, either wild or domestic, with the strongest bite
The jaguar bite is known to be stronger than that of the lion, tiger or leopard.